Barbiturate

Barbiturate

Barbiturate

BAR

What are Barbiturates?

Barbiturates are depressants that produce a wide spectrum of central nervous system depression from mild sedation to coma. They have also been used as sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates are classified as Ultrashort, Short, Intermediate, Long-acting. Barbiturates were first introduced for medical use in the 1900s, and today about 12 substances are in medical use.

Cut-Off Levels (ng/mL)

200, 300 ng/mL (Urine)

50, 300 ng/mL (Saliva)

Window of Detection

2 Hr. - 3 Days (Urine)

1 - 2 Days (Saliva)

How is it Used?

 

Barbiturates are abused by swallowing a pill or injecting a liquid form. Barbiturates are generally abused to reduce anxiety, decrease inhibitions, and treat unwanted effects of illicit drugs. Barbiturates can be extremely dangerous because overdoses can occur easily and lead to death.

What are the Effects?

Barbiturates cause mild euphoria, lack of inhibition, relief of anxiety and sleepiness. Higher doses cause impairment of memory, judgment and coordination, irritability, and paranoid and suicidal ideation. Tolerance develops quickly and larger doses are then needed to produce the same effect, increasing the danger of an overdose. Barbiturates slow down the central nervous system and cause sleepiness.

Drugs with similar effects include alcohol, benzodiazepines like Valium® and Xanax®, tranquilizers, sleeping pills, Rohypnol®, and GHB.

Common Street Names

  • Barbs
  • Block Busters
  • Christmas Trees
  • Goof Balls
  • Pinks
  • Red Devils
  • Reds & Blues
  • Yellow Jackets

Common Symptoms

Effects of overdose include:

  • shallow respiration
  • clammy skin
  • dilated pupils
  • weak and rapid pulse
  • coma
  • death
 

What does it Look Like?

Barbiturates come in a variety of multicolored pills and tablets. Abusers prefer the short-acting and intermediate barbiturates such as Amytal® and Seconal®.

Legal Status

Barbiturates are Schedule II, III, and IV depressants under the Controlled Substances Act. Barbiturates were first introduced for medical use in the 1900s, and today about 12 substances are in medical use.

Testing Options

  • Integrated Urine Cup Test
  • Urine Dip Card Test
  • Oral Fluid Test

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Barbiturate

Amphetamine

Amphetamine

AMP

What is Amphetamine

Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up the body’s system. Many are legally prescribed and used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Amphetamine was first marketed in the 1930s as Benzedrine® in an over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. By 1937 amphetamine was available by prescription in tablet form and was used in the treatment of the sleeping disorder, narcolepsy, and ADHD. Over the years, the use and abuse of clandestinely produced amphetamines have spread. Today, clandestine laboratory production of amphetamines has mushroomed, and the abuse of the drug is on the rise.

Cut-Off Levels (ng/mL)

300, 500, 1,000 ng/mL (Urine)

<50, 50, 100 ng/mL (Saliva)

Cut-Off Levels (ng/mL)

From 2-5 hours after use up to 2-4 days (Urine)

1-3 Days (Saliva)

How is it Used?

Alcohol is used in a variety of different ways but most commonly known, drinking alcohol, or ethanol, is usually ingested orally by consuming an alcoholic beverage. There has been cases where addicts have been know to coAmphetamines are generally taken orally or injected. However, the addition of “ice,” the slang name of crystallized methamphetamine hydrochloride, has promoted smoking as another mode of administration. Just as “crack” is smokable cocaine, “ice” is smokable methamphetamine.

What are the Effects?

The effects of amphetamines and methamphetamine are similar to cocaine, but their onset is slower and their duration is longer. In contrast to cocaine, which is quickly removed from the brain and is almost completely metabolized, methamphetamine remains in the central nervous system longer, and a larger percentage of the drug remains unchanged in the body, producing prolonged stimulant effects. Chronic abuse produces a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia and is characterized by: Paranoia, picking at the skin, preoccupation with one’s own thoughts, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Violent and erratic behavior is frequently seen among chronic abusers of amphetamines and methamphetamine. Drugs that cause similar effects include: dexmethylphendiate, phentermine, benzphetamine, phendimetrazine, cocaine, crack, methamphetamine, and khat.

Common Symptoms of Use

Physical effects of amphetamine use include increased blood pressure and pulse rates, insomnia, loss of appetite, and physical exhaustion.

Overdose effects include agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, and possible death.

What does it Look Like?

Amphetamines can look like pills or powder. Common prescription amphetamines include methylphenidate (Ritalin® or Ritalin SR®), amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall®), and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®).

Legal Status

Amphetamines are Schedule II stimulants, which means that they have a high potential for abuse and limited medical

uses. Pharmaceutical products are available only through a prescription that cannot be refilled.

Testing Options

  • Integrated Urine Test Cup
  • Urine Dip Card Test
  • Oral Fluid Test
  • Field Test