Knowledge & Education

National Test Systems understands the need for education in this industry and remains to be one of our core values. We have made it our mission to provide the most up to date information available so that you can manage your testing programs knowing that you are not missing out on anything. Sometimes the amount of knowledge and information out there can seem overbearing. We are here to help you along every step of the way, making sure that you have the power of knowledge to give you the leading edge in Point-of-Care testing.

A - Z

Alcohol (ALC/ETG)

Alcohol is one of the most used and abused, yet widely accepted drug of abuse, being one of the oldest consumed substances around the world.

Amphetamine (AMP)

Amphetamines are stimulants that speed up the body's system. Many are legally prescribed and used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Barbiturate (BAR)

Barbiturates are depressants that produce a wide spectrum of central nervous system depression from mild sedation to coma. 

Bath Salts (MDVP)

Synthetic stimulants that are marketed as “bath salts” are synthetic derivatives of cathinone, a central nervous system stimulant, which is an active chemical found naturally in the khat plant.

Benzodiazepine (BZO)

Benzodiazepines are  prescription only central nervous system depressants used to treat anxiety, insomnia, muscle spasms, and seizures. They can cause sedation and hypnosis.

Buprenorphine (BUP)

Buprenorphine, combined with naloxone, is in a drug class of opioid partial-agonist antagonist, meaning it has less efficacy by the way it binds to the opioid receptors in the brain. 

Cocaine (COC)

Cocaine is a powerful stimulant that derives from coca leaves native to South America. The common form of cocaine is produced through a series of chemical processes and is illegally distributed through out the world.

Fentanyl (FEN/FYL)

Fentanyl is an extremely powerful Opioid pain medication that is approximately 50 times more potent than Morphine. It is a fully synthetic Opioid and a leading danger in the opioid epidemic.

Gabapentin (GAB)

Gabapentin, better know by the brand name Neurontin, is an anti-convulsant prescription medication used to treat a variety of symptoms including seizures, nerve pain, and restless leg syndrome.


Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, also widely known as the  “date-rape” drug. Under approval of strict DEA and FDA protocol may be prescribed medically.

Heroin (6-MAM)

Heroin is an opioid processed from the naturally occurring opiate morphine. Like all opioids, Heroin, is highly addictive both psychologically and psychically due to the fast acting euphoric effects. 

Ketamine (KET)

Ketamine is a short-acting anesthetic with rapid onset effects that is used in both humans and animals. Ketamine, is considered to be a “dissociative” anesthetic anesthetic because of the feeling of being detached from reality.

Kratom (KRA)

Kratom is a tropical tree within the coffee family, native to South East Asia, and has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for a variety of different ailments that can produce effects similar to opioids.


LSD is a potent hallucinogenic that was first sythesized by Albert Halman in 1938 in Switzerland. The drug became popular in the United States during the 1960’s and has been used recreationally since.

Methamphetamine (mAMP)

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. It is chemically similar to amphetamine, a drug used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Methadone (MTD/EDDP)

Methadone is a synthetic opioid which is commonly prescribed to patients suffering from opioid withdrawal. After consumption of Methadone the body will metabolize a compound known as EDDP.

Morphine (MOP)

Morphine is a naturally occurring opiate that is prescribed medically to treat acute and chronic severe pain as well as labor pains during child birth. It, like other opioids, has a high potential for abuse and dependency.

Nicotine - Cotinine (NIC/COT)

Nicotine is a stimulant commonly found in tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and electronic cigarettes. Nicotine is highly addictive causing dependency in users.

Opiate (OPI)

Opiates are naturally derived from the active ingredients in the opium poppy plant. They fall under the category of opioids. Like other opioids, opiates have a high potential for abuse and dependency.

Oxycodone (OXY)

Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid narcotic analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain. It has a high potential for abuse due to its’ euphoric pain relieving effects and high risk of addiction and dependency.

Phencyclidine (PCP)

Phencyclidine (PCP) is a mind-altering drug that may lead to hallucinations (a profound distortion in a person’s perception of reality). It is considered a dissociative drug, leading to a distortion of sights, colors, sounds, self, and one's environment.

Propoxyphene (PPX)

Propoxyphene is an opioid pain reliever used to treat mild to moderate pain. The FDA voted against the continued marketing of PPX products, based on weak pain-killing abilities, addictiveness, association with drug deaths and heart problems.

Rohyphnol (BZO)

Rohypnol is a powerful benzodiazepine and acts as a central nervous system depressant. It has become widely known as the “date rape” because it has been used to sedate potential victims.

Synthetic Marijuana (K2P/K3)

A synthetic version of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, "K2/Spice" is a mixture of plant material sprayed with dangerous synthetic psychoactive chemicals.

THC (Marijuana)

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of marijuana. It is responsible for the "high" that people experience when they use marijuana. 

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA)

Tricyclic antidepressants, or TCAs, were introduced in the late 1950s. One of the first antidepressants prescribed and still being used today though, dangerous side effects have deterred their use.

Xylazine (XYL)

Xylazine is a veterinary medication that is used as a sedative, muscle relaxant, and pain reliever in animals. It is not approved for use in humans, but it has been used illicitly as a recreational drug.

Cut-Off Levels, Window of Detection & Certification

*Urine Specimen

Drug Name Cut-off Level (ng/mL) Window of Detection Certification
Amphetamine (AMP) 300, 500 or 1000 2 hours to 4 days FDA CLIA Waived (500, 1000)
Barbituates (BAR) 200 or 300 2 hours to 3 days FDA CLIA Waived (300)
Benzodiazepines (BZO) 200, 300 and 500 2 hours to 4 days FDA CLIA Waived (300)
Buprenorphine (BUP) 5 or 10 2 hours to 3 days FDA CLIA Waived (10)
Cocaine (COC) 100, 150, 200 or 300 1 hours to 4 days FDA CLIA Waived (150, 300)
Cannabinoids (THC) 25, 30, 50, 150 or 200 2 hours to 40 days FDA CLIA Waived (50)
Methadone (MTD) 200 or 300 3 hours to 3 days FDA CLIA Waived (300)
Methamphetamine (MET) 300, 500 or 1000 2 hours to 4 days FDA CLIA Waived (500, 1000)
Morphine (MOP) 100, 200 or 300 2 hours to 3 days FDA CLIA Waived (300)
Opiates (OPI) 2000 2 hours to 3 days FDA CLIA Waived
Oxycodone (OXY) 100 1 hours to 2 days FDA CLIA Waived
Phencyclidine (PCP) 25 4 hours to 14 days FDA CLIA Waived
D.L-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine(MDMA) 300, 500 or 1000 2 hours to 4 days FDA CLIA Waived (500)
Methadone Metabolite (EDDP) 100 or 300 1 hours to 3 days FDA CLIA Waived (100)
Nortriptyline (TCA) 1000 8 hours to 7 days FDA CLIA Waived
Propoxyphene (PPX) 300 1 hours to 3 days FDA CLIA Waived
7-Aminoclonazepam (7-ACL) Available Soon Available Soon Forensic Use Only
Alcohol (ALC) 0.02% BAC N/A Forensic Use Only
Caffiene Available Soon Available Soon Forensic Use Only
Cotinine(COT) 100 or 200 2 hours to 3 days Forensic Use Only
Ethyl Glucuronide (ETG) 300, 500 or 1000 1 hours to 3 days Forensic Use Only
Fentanyl (FEN) 200 or 300 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Synthetic Marijuana (K2) 25 or 50 1 hour to 2 days Forensic Use Only
Ketamine (KET) 100, 300, 500 or 1000 Up to 2 days Forensic Use Only
LSD 20 1 to 2 days Forensic Use Only
Methcathinone (MCAT500) 500 N/A Forensic Use Only
Methylphenidate (MPD) 300 1 hour to 3 days Forensic Use Only
Methqualone (MQL) 300 2 hours to 4 days Forensic Use Only
Bath Salts (MDPV) 1000 1 to 2 days Forensic Use Only
Tramadol (TRA) 100, 200 1 hour to 2 days Forensic Use Only
6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) 10 24 hours Forensic Use Only
Kratom (KRA) 250 Up to 7 Days Forensic Use Only

*Oral Fluid Specimen

Drug Name Cut-off Level (ng/mL) Window of Detection Certification
Alcohol (ETG) < 50, 50, 100 ng/mL 6-12 hrs. Forensic Use Only
Amphetamines (AMP) 50 ng/mL up to 72 hr. Forensic Use Only
Bath Salts (MDPV) 50, 100ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Barbiturates (BAR) 50, 300 ng/mL 1 – 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Benzodiazepines (BZO) 10, 50 ng/mL 1 – 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Buprenorphine (BUP) 5, 10 ng/mL 1 – 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Cocaine (COC) 20, 50 ng/mL up to 24 hr. Forensic Use Only
Ecstacy (MDMA) 50 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Fentanyl (FYN) 10 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Heroin (6-MAM) 10, 15, 25ng/mL 8 – 72 hr. Forensic Use Only
Ketamine (KET) 50, 100ng/mL 1 – 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Marijuana (THC) 25 ng/mL up to 14 hr. Forensic Use Only
Methadone (MTD) 30 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Methadone Metabolite (EDDP) 30 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Methamphetamines (mAMP) 50 ng/mL 1 – 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Morphine (MOP) 15 ng/mL 1 – 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Opiates (OPI) 40 ng/mL 1 – 3 Days Forensic Use Only
Oxycodone (OXY) 50 ng/mL up to 14 hr. Forensic Use Only
Phencyclidine (PCP) 10 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Propoxyphene (PPX) 50 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use only
Synthetic Marijuana (K2) 50 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Tramadol (TRA) 50 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) 50 ng/mL 1 – 2 Days Forensic Use Only

A – Z  Terminology

A – D


Tampering or manipulation of a urine specimen with the intention of altering the test results. The use of adulterants can cause false negative results in drug tests by either interfering with the screening test and/or destroying the drugs present in the urine.  Specimen substitution can also fall into this category, where as a patient will use a “clean” specimen in place of their own if they fear negative results.


A substance whose chemical constituents are being identified and measured.


A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.


A toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.


An investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). The analyte can be a drug, a biochemical substance, or a cell in an organism or organic sample.

Blood Alcohol Content (B.A.C.)

The amount of alcohol in the bloodstream; expressed as a percentage. Simplified, most states consider a driver impaired with a BAL of 0.08% – this is 8/100th of a percent of their blood is comprised of alcohol. On average, the possibility of death occurs with concentrations of 0.40%–0.50% – just under ½ percent concentrations.


Any of a group of closely related compounds that include cannabinol and the active constituents of cannabis.  THC and CBD are two of the most commonly known Cannabinoids.


The target drug or metabolite used to establish the cut-off value for that specific assay. A standard, reference material, or substance used to standardize or calibrate an instrument or laboratory procedure.

Chain of Custody (CCF)

In legal contexts, refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail that records the sequence of custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or electronic evidence.  Chain of Custody Forms (CCF) are used to track the entire process of implementing a drug test.


Waived tests include test systems cleared by the FDA for home use and those tests approved for waiver under the CLIA criteria. Although CLIA requires that waived tests must be simple and have a low risk for erroneous results, this does not mean that waived tests are completely error-proof. See our CLIA-Waived section for more details.

CPT Codes

Current Procedural Terminology, or CPT is an expansive, important code set published and maintained by the American Medical Association (AMA). CPT codes are used to describe tests, surgeries, evaluations, and any other medical procedure performed by a healthcare provider on a patient. CPT codes are an integral part of the billing process. CPT codes tell the insurance payer what procedures the healthcare provider would like to be reimbursed for and are also used to track important health data and measure performance and efficiency. 

Beginning January 1, 2017, there are new presumptive (screen) toxicology CPT codes that will replace the existing AMA CPT and CMS HCPCS codes for presumptive drug testing. All AMA and CMS definitive drug testing codes remain unchanged at this time.

The following AMA CPT codes for presumptive drug testing are deleted:

  • 80300
  • 80301
  • 80302
  • 80303
  • 80304

In addition, the following AMA CPT codes for specimen validity testing are deleted:

  • 84311
  • 83986
  • 82570

CMS will also recognize the new AMA codes and delete the following G codes:

  • G0477
  • G0478
  • G0479

Presumptive drug testing

CPT code: 80305

Drug test(s), presumptive, any number of drug classes, qualitative; any number of devices or procedures, (e.g., immunoassay) capable of being read by direct optical observation only (e.g., dipstick, cups, cards, cartridges) includes sample validation when performed, per date of service (maps to 80300 or G0477).

CPT code: 80306

Drug test(s), presumptive, any number of drug classes, qualitative; any number of devices or procedures, (e.g., immunoassay) read by instrumented assisted direct optical observation (e.g., dipstick, cups, cards, cartridges) includes sample validation when performed, per date of service (maps to 80300 or G0478).

CPT code: 80307

Drug test(s), presumptive, any number of drug classes, qualitative; any number of devices or procedures, by instrument chemistry and analyzers (e.g., utilizing immunoassay [EIA, ELISA, EMIT, FPIA, IA, KIMS, RIA]), chromatography (e.g., GC, HPLC), and mass spectrometry either with or without chromatography, (DAT, DESI, GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, LDTD, MALDI, TOF) includes sample validation when performed, per date of service (maps to 80301, 80302, 80303, 80304 and G0479). Most of our presumptive drug tests at Quest Diagnostics will fit the CPT code 80307.

Cross Reactivity

When a positive result occurs but is caused by a substance other than what substances the test is known or expected to test for.

Cut-Off Level

The minimum concentration of drugs or metabolites in urine to trigger a positive result measured in nanograms over mililiter (ng/mL).

One of the key concepts within drug testing is the application of a cut-off level. This is the point which segregates a test result as being either positive or negative.

For drug screening tests, a cut-off is chosen that will optimise drug detection but minimise the number of false positive results. It is important to note that a negative sample doesn’t mean that it is drug free; it might contain a drug at a concentration that is lower than the defined cut-off.

If a drug test is reported as screen positive or presumptive positive, this merely shows a response, which is usually because a drug is present. It cannot show how much drug was taken or be correlated to any degree of impairment. As this is a screening tool, all presumptive positives require a confirmation test.

D.O.T. Testing

Anyone designated in DOT regulations as a safety-sensitive employee is subject to DOT drug & alcohol testing. What follows is an overview of what jobs are defined as safety-sensitive functions subject to testing.

Aviation FAA

Flight crews, flight attendants, flight instructors, air traffic controllers at facilities not operated by the FAA or under contract to the U.S. military, aircraft dispatchers, aircraft maintenance or preventative maintenance personnel, ground security coordinators and aviation screeners. Direct or contract employees of 14 CFR Part 121 or 135 certificate holders, Section 91.147 operators and air traffic control facilities not operated by the FAA or under contract to the US Military. See FAA regulations at 14 CFR Part 120.

Commercial Motor Carriers FMCSA

Commercial Drivers License (CDL) holders who operate Commercial Motor Vehicles, 26,001 lbs. gvwr. or greater, or operate a vehicle that carries 16 passengers or more including the driver, or required to display a DOT placard in the transportation of hazardous material.1 1 In some instances, states allow waivers from this qualification, such as operators of fire trucks and some farm equipment. Check with your state department of motor vehicles for more information. See FMCSA regulation at 49 CFR Part 382.

Maritime USCG

An agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Crew members operating a commercial vessel. See USCG regulations at 46 CFR Parts 4 & 16.

Pipeline PHMSA

Operations, maintenance and emergency response. See PHMSA regulations at 49 CFR Part 199.

Railroad FRA

Hours of Service Act personnel, engine & train, signal service or train dispatchers. See FRA regulations at 49 CFR Part 219.

Transit FTA

Vehicle operators, controllers, mechanics and armed security. See FTA regulations at 49 CFR Part 655.

Links to these regulations can be found on-line at

Remember: The tasks you actually perform qualify you as a safety-sensitive employee, not your job title. Also, some employees, like managers and supervisors, may be qualified for these jobs but not currently performing them. Do they have to be tested as well? In most cases, yes…if that employee may be asked at a moment’s notice or in an emergency to perform a safety sensitive job. Be sure to check industry specific regulations for further clarification.

D – O

Drug Panel

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The metabolite  of ethanol which is formed in the body by glucuronidation following exposure to ethanol, usually from drinking alcoholic beverages.

False Negative

When a test reads a negative result and should not be.

False Positive

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Fentanyl (FEN/FYL)

Fentanyl is an Opioid used as a pain reliever available in many forms including, injection, transdermal patch, and sublingual lozenge. It is an extremely potent narcotic analgesic 100 times more potent than Morphine with rapid on set effects and a short lasting duration of effects. Fentanyl has gained popularity as a recreational drug and can be produced illegally at low costs, often being mixed with, or mimicking drugs like Oxycodone and Heroin, creating lethal doses. Fentanyl is currently a Scheduled II controlled substance in the United States.

Forensic Use Only (FUO)

Tests that can be used by Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement.


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A substance formed in or necessary for metabolism or metabolic processes allowing the body to break down what has been ingested.  Certain drug metabolites can simply be waste, while others are what actually causes the desired effects among drug users.  In some cases a drug’s metabolite can be detected in a person’s system longer than the parent drug, in which, testing for a drug metabolite such as EtG would be a better option for determaining alcohol use.

Medical Review Officer (MRO)

A Medical Review Officer (MRO) is a person who is a licensed physician and who is responsible for receiving and reviewing laboratory results generated by an employer’s drug testing program and evaluating medical explanations for certain drug test results.


A term used in pharmacology that represents substances derived from the natural plant opium. Three major psychoactive opiates are Morphine, Codeine, and Thebaine which are all naturally occurring alkaloids found in the opium poppy.  Opiates have been used for centuries as pain relievers and are now known for their high potential for abuse, due to their euphoric effects and addictive properties both mental and physical. Habitual users often suffer from extreme withdrawal symptoms after cessation.


Opioids, unlike opiates, are synthetic and semi-synthetic substances, but similar to opiates, in that they bind to the opioid receptors of the brain and produce similar euphoric effects.  Opioids include drugs such as, but not limited to, Oxycodone or OxyContin, Heroin, and Fentanyl. Like opiates, they share a high risk for abuse and can be lethal when not taken properly.

Over-the -Counter (OTC)

Over-the-Counter, or OTC, testing devices are tests that are sold comercially directly to the consumer. They can be purchased online or in stores and in  pharmacies. These tests usually come in packs of two and have been approved to be administered at home without a doctor’s or medical professional’s consent or supervision.


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P – Z

Parent Compound

A compound from which derivatives can be obtained from. When calibrating a drug test, the manufacturer will find the substance most readily and reliably available in the specimen.  In some cases this will be the parent compound, or component of the actual substance being tested for and in other cases this can be a metabolite, which is what the body creates in response to metabolizing the parent compound.

Point-of-Care (POC)

Medical diagnostic testing designed to be performed at where the patient is located, or “point of care”.


A qualitative test tells you if a particular substance (analyte) is present in the specimen.  If you were testing for alcohol a qualitative test will only determine the presence of alcohol and not the actual alcohol level.


A quantitative test tells you the amount or level of a particular substance (analyte) that is present in a specimen.  If you were testing for alcohol a quantitative test can determine the acutal level of alcohol in a specimen.

Reagent Strips

Strip of paper impregnated with a reagent to a given substance, used in testing for the prescence of that substance in a bodily fluid or other secretion. 


The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA’s mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America’s communities.


An initial test that has not been confirmed by a laboratory, such as a point-of-care instant test device or a desk top analyzer.


A semi-quantitative test will produce a result “range” not as specific as quantitative tests but more specific than qualitative tests. They are are realtively insensitive and subject to less false positive results.


Instant test strips are manufactured with a 24-month shelf-life and tests should not be used (and the results absolutely not be relied upon) after their expiration. The expiration of a multi-panel test is based on the oldest strip on the test. In addition, a new lot number is assigned any time in the manufacturing process when one (or more) “lots” of a specific strip are changed. This is to keep accurate tracking of the manufacturing parameters of that particular item. Should any issues arise down the road, the manufacturer has a certain amount of tests from that lot (called “retains”) that they keep for doing their own quality control investigations.


The narrowness of the range of substances with which an antibody or other agent acts or is effective or the extent to which a diagnostic test is specific for a particular condition, trait, etc.

Third Party Administrator

Organization that processes insurance claims or certain aspects of employee benefit plans and administrative duties for a separate entity.


Analysis of urine by physical, chemical, and microscopical means to test for the presence of disease, drugs, etc.

Window of Detection

Drugs are detected in oral fluid either from direct deposition in the mouth or by transfer from the blood stream following ingestion and absorption. Any drugs present in the bloodstream are metabolised in the liver before being excreted in the urine. This process results in drugs appearing in the urine later than oral fluid. The drugs are detectable for a significantly longer time in urine than in oral fluid.

The actual time a drug will remain detectable in a sample will depend on some or all of the following:

  • The amount of drug taken
  • How frequently the drug is taken
  • The nature of the drug itself
  • An individual’s metabolism and general health
  • The amount of fluids taken since taking the drug
  • The amount of exercise taken since taking the drug
  • Genetic variations that affect a response to drugs

For example if a person smoked a single spliff the cannabis could remain detectable in urine for no more than 2–3 days and may even be as short as one day depending on the strength of cannabis. However if their cannabis use is habitual and heavy it is stored in the fatty tissues, resulting in a much wider detection window (sometimes up to 30 days).

Oral Fluid:

The shortest window of detection is found with oral fluid.


Drugs can be detected in urine for longer, and in consequence the window of detection for some drugs can be affected by whether their effects are short or long acting.


Hair provides a historic record of drug use, and detection windows are based entirely on hair length. It takes about 14 days for the drugs to appear in the hair shaft, and moving away from the scalp, every 1cm of hair length approximates to a one month window of detection.

Physical and mental symptoms that occur after stopping or reducing intake of a drug. The characteristics of withdrawal depend on what drug is being discontinued.
Symptoms may include anxiety, fatigue, sweating, vomiting, depression, seizures, and hallucinations.
Treatment includes supportive care as well as medications to address symptoms and prevent complications.

Common Cross Reactions

Substance Common Brand Names Results
Abacavir Ziagen Non-reactive
Acamprosate Campral Non-reactive
Acetaminophen (See also Paracetamol) Aceta, Acephen, Apacet, Dapacen, Feverall, Tylenol, Excedrin (Combination), Panadol, Tempura Non-reactive
Acetaminophen with Codeine (see also Paracetamol with codeine) Tylenol 3, Tylenol with codeine Positive for Opiates OPI, MOR
Acetic Acid Ethanoic Acid Non-reactive
Acetophenetidin Phenacetin Non-reactive
Acetylsalicyclic acid Aspirin, Anadin, Anasin, Bufferin, Caprin, Disprin, Ecotrin, Empirin, Excedrin (combination) Non-reactive
Aciclovir Zovirax Non-reactive
Adinazolam Deracyn Non-reactive
Albuterol (salbutamol) Aerocrom, Aerolin, Airomir, Asmasal, Combivent, Duovent, Ventide, Ventodisks, Ventolin, Volmax Non-reactive
Allobarbital No known trade names Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Alphenol No known trade names Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Alprazolam Xanax Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate Drichlor, Anhydrol Forte Non-reactive
Aluminum Hydroxide Alu-Cap, Alisone, Gastrocote, Kolanticon, Maalox, Maalox TC, Mucogel, Pyrogastrone, Topal Non-reactive
Alverine Citrate Spasmonal, Spasmonal Fibre Non-reactive
Amitriptyline Elavil, Lentizol, Tryptizol, Triptafen, Triptafen-M Positive for Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA
Amlodipine Caduet, Norvasc Non-reactive
Ammonia/Ipeacuanha Ipecac Non-reactive
Amobarbital Amytal, Tuinal Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Amoxicillin or Amoxycillin Amoxil, Amoram, Augmentin, Heliclear Non-reactive
Ampicillin Penbritin, Polycillin, Principen Non-reactive
Amylmetacresol Strepsils Non-reactive
Anhydrol forte Non-reactive
Antabuse Disulfiram Non-reactive
Antazoline Sulphate Otrivine-Anistin Non-reactive
Antipyrine 4-Dimethylaminoantipyrine Non-reactive
Aprobarbital Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Aspirin Bayer Aspirin, Excedrin, ASA, Angettes, Asasantin, Caprin Non-reactive
Atenolol Beta-adlat, Co-tenidone, Kalten, Tenben, Tenif, Tenoret 50, Tenorectic, Tenormin Non-reactive
Atorvastatin Lipitor Non-reactive
Azlocillin Securopen Non-reactive
Baclofen Lioresal, Kemstro Non-reactive
Barbital Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Beclometasone AeroBec, AeroBec Forte, Asmabec, Beclazone, Becloforte, Becodisks, Beconase, Becotide, Fillair, Nasobec, Qvar, Ventide, Zonivent Non-reactive
Bendrofluazide Aprinox, Cogaretic, Indertic, Inderex, Neo-Naclax, Neo-Naclax-K, Prestim, Tenben Non-reactive
Benzalknonium Bradosol Non-reactive
Benzocaine Americaine, Merocaine Non-reactive
Benztropine Cogentin Non-reactive
Benzydamine Difflam Non-reactive
Benzylpenicillin Crystapen Non-reactive
Bromazepam Lexotan Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Bromopheniramine Dimetapp, Dimotapp, Dimotane Non-reactive
Budesonide Entocort, Pulmicort, Rhinocort Non-reactive
Buprenorphine Subutex, Suboxone, Temgesic Positive for Buprenorphine BUP
Buproprion Wellbutrin, Zyban Non-reactive
Buspirone BuSpar, Vanspar Positive for Fentanyl FYL
Butabarbital Butisol, Soneryl Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Butalbital Fioricet, Fiorinal Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Butethal Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Canestan Canestan ear/skin/vaginitis/HC Non-reactive
Carbamate Pesticide Non-reactive
Carbamazepine Tegretol, Teril, Timonil Non-reactive
Carisoprodol Soma Non-reactive
Celecoxib Celebrex Non-reactive
Cephalexin Ceporex, Keflex Non-reactive
Cetirizine Zyrtec Non-reactive
Cetylpyridinium Cepacol mouth rinse Non-reactive
Chloral Hydrate Welldorm Non-reactive
Chlorazepate Tranxene Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Chlordiazepoxide Librium Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Chlorhexidine Gluconate Bactrigras, Cordsodyl, Chlorohex, CX Powder, Dermol, Hibicet, Hibiscrub, Hibisol, Hibitane, Instillagel, Naseptin, Nystaform, Serotulle, Steripod, Tisept, Unisept, Uriflex, Uro-Trainer Non-reactive
Chloroform Non-reactive
Chlorpheniramine Maleate Galpseud, Haymine, Piriton Non-reactive
Chlorpromazine Largactil Non-reactive
Chlorprothixene Cloxan, Fluanxol, Taractan, Truxal Non-reactive
Cimetidine Dyspamet, Tagamet, Zita Non-reactive
Cinnarizine Stugeron Non-reactive
Ciprofloxacin Cipro Non-reactive
Citalopram Cipramil Non-reactive
Clobazam Frisium Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Clofibrate Atromid-S Non-reactive
Clomethazole Chlormethiazole, Heminevrin Non-reactive
Clonazepam Clonopin, Klonopin, Rivotril Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Clotrimazole Lotrimin, Lotrisone, Mycelex Non-reactive
Clozapine Clozaril, Clopine, Zaponex Non-reactive
Co-Amoxiclav Augmentin, Augmentin Duo Non-reactive
Co-danthramar Dantron Non-reactive
Codeine Phosphate Codafen Continus, Codeine Linctus, Pediatric BP, Galcodine, Kapake, Migraleve, Solpadol, Tylex Positive for Opiates OPI, MOR
Co-Fluampicil Magnapen Non-reactive
Combivir Epivir Non-reactive
Co-Phenotrope (atropine/diphenoxylate) Lomotil, Trepergen Non-reactive
Co-Trimoxazole Non-reactive
Cyclobenazprine Flexeril Positive for Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA
Cyclosporin Neoral Non-reactive
Cyprohetadine Periactin Positive for Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA
Cyproterone Androcur, Cyprostat, Nioproxil, Progynova, Siterone Non-reactive
d/l-Octopamine No known trade names Non-reactive
Dantrolene Non-reactive
Delorazepam Briantum Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Dequalinium Dequadin Non-reactive
Desmopressin DDAVP, Minirin, Stimate Non-reactive
Dexamethasone Decadron, Dexa-Rhinaspray Duo, Maxidex, Maxidrol, Minims, Otomize, Sofradex Non-reactive
Dexamphetamine Sulphate Adderall, Adderall XR, Dexedrine Positive for Amphetamine AMP
Dextropropoxyphene Darvon, Darvocet, Co-proximal Positive for Propoxyphene PPX
Diazepam Diazemuls, Stesolid, Valclair, Valium Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Diclofenac Sodium Dicloflex, Diclomax, Motifene, Volraman, Volsaid, Voltarol Non-reactive
Dicyclomine Kolanticon, Merbentyl Non-reactive
Didanosine Videx Non-reactive
Dihydrocodeine DHC Continus, Paramol, Remedeine, Remedeine Forte Positive for Opiates OPI, MOR
Diltiazem Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac Non-reactive
Dimethicone Asilone, Fancorsil Non-reactive
Dipenoxylate with Atropine Lomotil Non-reactive
Diphenhydramine Benadryl, Medinex, Nytol, Panadol Night Non-reactive
d-Methamphetamine HCL Desoxyn, Methedrine, Methamprex Positive for Methamphetamine mAMP
Docusate Sodium Non-reactive
Donepezil Aricept Non-reactive
Dopamine Intropin Non-reactive
Dothiepin Prothiaden Positive for Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA
Doxepin Sinequan, Xepin Positive for Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA
Doxycycline Vibramycin, Vibramycin-D Non-reactive
Doxylamine Nyquil Positive for Methadone MTD
Droperidol Dridol, Droleptan, Inapsine Non-reactive
Duloxetine Cymbalta Non-reactive
Efavirenz Sustiva Positive for Cannabinoids THC [Urinary metabolite(s) only; parent compound is non- reactive]
Enoxaparin Clexane, Lovenox Non-reactive
Erythromycin Arpimycin, Benzymycin, Erycane, Erymax, Erythrocin, Erythroped, Ilosone, Isotrexin, Lactobinate, Stiemycin, Tiloryth, Zineryl Non-reactive
Estazolam ProSom Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Ethambutol Myambutol Non-reactive
Ethylmorphine Positive for Opiates OPI, MOR
Fenofibrate Tricor Non-reactive
Ferrous Fumarate Iron Non-reactive
Flucloxacillin Co-fluampicil, Floxapen, Magnapen Non-reactive
Flumazenil Romazicon Non-reactive
Flunitrazepam Rohypnol Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Fluoxetine Prozac, Sarafem Non-reactive
Flupentixol Decanoate Depixol, Fluanxol Non-reactive
Fluphenazine Prolixin Non-reactive
Flurazepam Dalmane Non-reactive
Folic Acid Non-reactive
Fusidic Acid (Sodium Fusidate) Fucithalmic, Fucibet, Fucidin Non-reactive
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate GHB Non-reactive
Gemfibrozil Gemcor, Lopid Non-reactive
Gentamicin Sulphate Cidomycin, Genticin, Gentisone Non-reactive
Gliclazide Diamicron, Dianorm Non-reactive
Halazepam Alapryl, Paxipam, Pacinone Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Haloperidol Haldol Non-reactive
Hepatitis B Vaccine Non-reactive
Hydrochlorothiazide Hyzaar, Losartan Non-reactive
Hydrocodone Lorcet, Loratab, Vicodin Positive for Opiates OPI, MOR and/or Oxycodone OXY
Hydrocortisone Actinac, Alphaderm, Alphosyl-HC, Anugesic-HC, Anusol-HC, Calmurid-HC, Canesten-HC, Colioam, Daktacort, Dioderm, Econacort, Efortelan, Efcortesel, Eurax-HC, Gregoderm, Hydrocortistab, Hydrocortone, Mildison lipocream, Neo-cortef, Nystaform, Perinal, Proctofoam, Quinocort, Terra- cortil, Timodine, Uniroid-HC, Vioform-HC, Xyloproct Non-reactive
Hydrocortisone-17-butyrate Locoid, Locoid C Non-reactive
Hydromorphone Dilaudid, Hydrostat Positive for Opiates OPI, MOR and/or Oxycodone OXY
Hydroxocobalamin Vitamin B-12 Non-reactive
Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Non-reactive
Hydroxyzine Atarax, Ucerax Non-reactive
Hyoscine butylbromide Busocopan, Scopoderm Non-reactive
Ibuprofen Brufen, Codafen, Fenbid, Ibugel, Ibuspray, Motrin, Proflex Non-reactive
Indomethacin Flexin continus, Indocid, Indomod Non-reactive
Interferon Alfa Intron A, Roferon-A, Viraferon, Wellferon Non-reactive
Isoniazide INH Non-reactive
Isosorbide Dinitrate Angitak, Cedocard, Isocard, Isoket, Isordil, Sorbichew, Sorbitrate, Sorbid SA Non-reactive
Ketoprofen Orudis, Oruvail, Powergel Non-reactive
Koalin and Morphine Mixture Diocalm, Entersan, Opazimes Positive for Opiates OPI, MOR
Lactulose Duphalec, Lactugal Non-reactive
Lamotrigine Lamitcal Positive for Phencyclidine PCP
Lansoprazole Heliclear, Zoton Non-reactive
Lisinopril Carace, Zestril, Zestoretic Non-reactive
l-Methamphetamine HCL Vick's Inhaler Positive for Methamphetamine mAMP
Lofepramine Gamanil, Lomont Positive for Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA
Lofexidine Britoflex Non-reactive
Loperamide Imodium, Loperagen, Norimide Non-reactive
Loratadine Claritin Non-reactive
Lorazepam Ativan Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Lormetazepam Noctamide Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Magnesium Alginate Gaviscon Non-reactive
Mannitol Gaviscon Non-reactive
Medazepam Anxitol, Lerisum, Medacepan, Nobritol, Nobrium Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Mefenamic Acid Ponstan, Ponstel Non-reactive
Meperidine Demerol, Pethidine Non-reactive
Methadone Hydrochloride Dolophine, Methadose, Physetone Positive for Methadone MTD
Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) Eve (slang), Love Drug (slang) Positive for Amphetamine AMP and Ecstasy MDMA
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Adam (slang), Ecstasy (slang), XTC (slang) Positive for Methamphetamine mAMP and Ecstasy MDMA
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) E (slang) Positive for Methamphetamine mAMP and Ecstasy MDMA
Metoclopramide Reglan Non-reactive
Metronidazole Anabact, Elyzol, Flagyl, Metrogel, Metrolyl, Metrotop, Neuratop, Noritate, Rozex, Zidoval, Zymoet Non-reactive
Morphine Astramorph, Cyclimorph, Duramorph, Morcap, Morphine Sulfate, MS Contin, Oramorph, Roxanol, Severedol Positive for Opiates MOR, OPI
Nadolol Corgard, Corgaretic, Corgartic Non-reactive
Naloxone Narcan Non-reactive
Naltrexone Antaxone, Nalorex, Trexan, Vivitrol Positive for Oxycodone OXY
Naproxen Aleve, Condrotec, Napratec, Naprosen, Naprosyn, Nycopren, Synflex Non-reactive
Nicotine Nicoderm, Nicorette, Nicotinell, Nicotrol, Niquitin Non-reactive
Nifedipine Adalat, Nifecard, Nifar, Nif-ten, Procardia Non-reactive
Nitrazepam Mogadon, Somnite Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Norethindrone BiNovum, Brevinor, Climagest, Climesse, Elleste Duet, Estracombi, Evorel, Kliofem, Kliovance, Loestrin, Micronor, Norlutin, Noriday, Norimin, Norinyl, Noristat, Nuvelle, Ovysmen, TriNovum, Trisquens, Utovian Non-reactive
Noscapine Narcotine Non-reactive
Olanzapine Zyprexa Non-reactive
Orphenadrine Disipil, Norflex, Norgesic Non-reactive
Oxazepam Ox-pam, Serax Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Oxymetazoline Afrin, Neo-synephrine Non-reactive
Oxytetracycline Terra-Cortil, Terramycin, Trimovate Non-reactive
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Fortagesic, Paradote Non-reactive
Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) /Codeine Preparations Co-codamol, Codafen, Co-dydramol, Kapake, Remedine, Solpadol, Tylenol 3, Tylex Positive for Opiates MOR, OPI
Paroxetine Paxil, Seroxat Non-reactive
Penicillin Combicillin, Mefoxin Non-reactive
Pentobarbital Nembutal Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Pericyazine Amplan, Aolept, Apamin, Iryakin, Nemactil, Neulactil, Propetyl, Psycholept Non-reactive
Phenobarbital Donnatal Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Phenobarbitone (see also Phenobarbital) Luminal Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Phenytoin Dilantin, Epanutin, Epitard Possible Positive for Barbiturates BAR: Urinary metabolite(s) only; parent compound is non-reactive
Pholcodine Galenphol, Strong BP, Pavacol-D, Thebacon Positive for Opiates MOR, OPI
Piperacillin Pipracil, Tazobactam Non-reactive
Prazepam Centrax, Demetrin Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Prednisolone Delta-cortef, Econopred, Inflamase, Pediapred, Prelone Non-reactive
Procaine Novocain Positive for Opiates OPI, MOP
Progesterol Non-reactive
Promethazine Allerfen, Anergan, Antinaus, Aprobit, Avomine, Baymethzine, Diprozin, Fenergan, Methazine, Phenergen Positive for Tricyclic Antidepressants TCA
Propranolol Beta-Progane, Inderal, Inderetic, Inderex Non-reactive
Pseudeophedrine Afrinol, Expulin, Sudafed, Tylenol Cold (combination) Non-reactive
Ranitidine Pylorid, Zantac Positive for Methamphetamine mAMP: Urinary metabolite(s) only; parent compound is non-reactive
Risperidone Risperdal Non-Reactive
Salbutamol(albuterol) Aerocrom, Aerolin, Airomir, Asmasal, Combivent, Duovent, Ventide, Ventodisks, Venotlin, Volmax Non-reactive
Secobarbital Seconal Positive for Barbiturates BAR
Sennosides Senokot Non-reactive
Sertraline Zoloft Potential Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Sodium Valproate Depakene, Depakote, Epilim Non-reactive
Temazepam Restoril Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Testosterone Andropatch, Restandol, Sustanon, Virormone, slang name "anabolic steroids" Non-reactive
Thioridazine Mellaril Non-reactive
Thyroxine Sodium Eltroxin Non-reactive
Tramadol Tramake, Ultram, Zamadol, Zydol Non-reactive
Trazodone Desyrel, Molipaxin, Trialodine Non-reactive
Triazolam Halcion Positive for Benzodiazepines BZO
Valporic Acid Depakene Non-reactive
Venlafaxine Effexor, Effexor XL Potential Positive for Phencyclidine PCP
Warfarin Sodium Coumadin, Marevan Non-reactive

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